12 Questions with Grant Hardy – part I

September 7, 2011 | 30 comments
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Grant HardyTo cap off our roundtable review of Grant Hardy’s new book Understanding the Book of Mormon we’re fortunate to feature an interview with the book’s author. The interview will be posted in two parts. Our thanks to all who have participated, and especially Bro. Hardy.

1.  Can you tell us a bit about the background to this book? What inspired you to begin this type of project? Were there any prior works that were a critical influence for you? What sort of process did you go through to write the book? What were the biggest challenges in writing it?

Understanding the Book of Mormon is a sequel to an earlier project, The Book of Mormon: A Reader’s Edition, which was published by the University of Illinois Press in 2003. As I was reformatting the text in the manner of modern biblical translations (with paragraphs, topical headings, poetic stanzas, quotation marks, indented documents, and so forth), I came to a better understanding of how the Book of Mormon is structured, and particularly the crucial role played by the major narrators. Reading in context, with an eye toward the editing of the narrators, uncovered interpretive layers and nuances that seemed to make the Book of Mormon a much more interesting work than many have assumed, both inside and outside the Church. So in a sense, Understanding the Book of Mormon is a set of field notes on the Reader’s Edition. (I was pleased by Rosalynde Welch’s observation that the Reader’s Edition is the more important of the two books. I agree. The particular arguments in Understanding will always be subject to debate and revision, but the Reader’s Edition could be a starting point for a new generation of Book of Mormon scholarship.)

In addition, it seemed to me that a narrative-based approach might offer some common ground between insiders and outsiders. Regardless of whether one views Nephi, Mormon, and Moroni as ancient prophet/historians or as fictional characters invented by Joseph Smith, they are presented in the Book of Mormon as playing a crucial role in selecting and shaping its contents. Too often, believers and critics alike get so wound up in trying to prove or disprove historicity that they cite  a few verses and then almost immediately get sidetracked by ancient Near Eastern or nineteenth-century parallels. As a result they end up not really reading the text at all. Similarly, a great deal of what passes for commentary from faithful Latter-day Saints is little more than paraphrase, with regular references to conference talks and gospel principles. None of these approaches lend themselves to careful, comprehensive readings. I myself am a believer who accepts the existence of ancient Nephites, but I’m not offended or threatened by those who see things differently, and indeed I think that there is much to learn from astute readers of any religious persuasion (or lack thereof). In many ways, I wish that outsiders would take the Book of Mormon more seriously as fiction, and that Latter-day Saints would take it more seriously as history.

My models in this endeavor were Robert Alter and Meir Sternberg, who analyze the Hebrew Bible from a narrative perspective while at the same time acknowledging the contributions made by historical-critical scholarship. It is probably not coincidental that they are both Jewish. Over the last half century, Latter-day Saints have come under the sway of evangelical or even fundamentalist Protestants in the way that we approach scripture. I’m not sure that this is a positive development, and it certainly does not seem to be a necessary part of being true to our tradition (whatever Joseph Smith may have been, he was not a fundamentalist). I have often asked myself, Why can’t Mormons be more like Jews?

As for writing Understanding itself, it was more a matter of rewriting. I would start with a few ideas from my own reading and from conversations with my wife Heather, who is a much better reader than I am, and then I would write a quick draft that would then be the subject of weeks, if not months of additional conversations (Heather is a gifted editor as well). The most difficult chapter was the one on Third Nephi, which went through eight complete revisions before I finally got something we were satisfied with. As might be expected in a book that concentrates on formal analysis, the form of Understanding was important to me. I wanted something that would lead readers through the main events and characters of the Book of Mormon from 1 Nephi to Moroni, as well as something that focused on the narrators, where every chapter also introduced and illustrated some specific, representative literary technique.

2.  Tell us about your relationship with Oxford? What sort of a process did you go through to get this book published?

The process of getting a book published with Oxford is the same as with any other academic press. After the manuscript was finished I sent a proposal to the religion editor at Oxford (OUP was the first press I contacted, largely because they had recently published Terryl Givens’ By the Hand of Mormon), and she was interested enough to ask to see the entire manuscript, which she  then sent to outside readers who are experts in the field. The readers’ reports were mixed, as they often are, with there being some concern that I was simply assuming historicity, which would make the work more devotional than academic. I think that it is possible to bracket the historicity question, at least temporarily, and I believe there are strong arguments on both sides— indeed, if I weren’t LDS, I would most certainly regard the Book of Mormon as religious fiction, or as a fascinating, modern example of pseudepigrapha—but somehow that didn’t come through as I intended. So I rewrote the manuscript yet again, deleting passages that might be misinterpreted and adding more parallel examples from fictional works that bear some similarity to the Book of Mormon. Oxford sent the revised manuscript to additional readers, including non-Mormons, and they were quite positive in their assessments, so contracts were signed, copyediting commenced, and the printing presses started to roll.

3.  Have you been disappointed, encouraged, or neither by your book’s reception?

The book’s reception is still unfolding. More than disappointment or encouragement, I have felt surprise that my work hasn’t attracted more attention, particularly from Latter-day Saint sources. After all, this is the first academic book on the contents of the Book of Mormon, and Oxford is not a marginal press. I would have thought that Mormons would have been more engaged with a text they hold sacred, which many read from nearly every day. I do understand that reviews often take a while to appear in print, but Understanding the Book of Mormon was released more than a year and a half ago and there still have not been many formal responses—a few book notices, on-line reviews from Blair Holmes and Rosalynde Welch, a Dialogue review by Julie M. Smith (the last two were recently reprinted in Times and Seasons), and a review by Terryl Givens in the Journal of Ecclesiastical History. But nothing substantive in Sunstone, BYU Studies, or in any of the publications of the Maxwell Institute. I expect that full reviews from BYU will appear eventually, but I’m puzzled by the slow pace. Most authors would rather be criticized than ignored, and I tried to give readers plenty to talk about.

There have been two particularly interesting responses from non-Mormons. The first was a review in the on-line magazine Slate by Alan Wolfe, a highly-respected commentator on the contemporary American religious scene. My analysis persuaded Wolfe that the Book of Mormon does have a complicated, coherent structure, and in fact he went back to the text to give it another try. In the end, he still didn’t see it as having much literary merit, but I was delighted that my work had encouraged him to take a fresh look. I did not expect to convince everyone, though I was hoping to make easy, off-hand dismissals of the Book of Mormon less academically respectable. The other unexpected response has come from the Community of Christ. Last month I was invited to give a presentation in Nauvoo at a meeting of Midwestern leaders, including two of their apostles, and I was pleasantly surprised to discover that nearly everyone in attendance—some fifty people—had read my book. It appears that there are many in that Restorationist denomination who are looking for ways to better utilize the Book of Mormon as scripture, while still acknowledging the serious historical problems of the text. I was thrilled that they were willing to reach out to a Latter-day Saint for advice on the Book of Mormon, and I would be quite pleased if they found my literary approach useful in better understanding a scripture that we have in common.

4.  Much in our reviews focused on your attempt to write to two audiences and fruitfully bring them together in exploring the Book of Mormon. Tell us what it is that you’re most hopeful that the Mormon audience will take from this book. What is your main message (and any subsidiary ones you want to mention) to the faithful?

I’m not sure that my approach will bring together insiders and outsiders when they explore the Book of Mormon—our interpretations of what the book ultimately means and where it comes from will always be far apart. But it seems to me that it should be possible to come to some agreement on how the book is structured, on what is says, and what it claims for itself. And I would hope that all readers, regardless of why they come to the text, would be able to agree that despite the awkward diction and repetitions, the book is not nonsense. It shows evidence of careful composition, for instance in the chronological flashbacks and the smooth handling of the frequent but irregular notices of the beginnings and endings of years of the judges. That is simply in the text, objectively.

For Latter-day Saints, I hope that my work will encourage them to see the Book of Mormon as more than just a sign of Joseph Smith’s prophetic calling. The contents matter as much as the book’s mere existence. Too often we don’t really read the Book of Mormon, preferring instead to skim it for proof-texts of principles that we know from elsewhere. Yet it seems incredibly important to me that the book was written as narrative rather than as a collection of propositional truths like Gospel Principles. Close readings, within the book’s multi-layered, thick contexts, often reveal lessons and insights that can help us become more Christ-like, even after we have been converted by Moroni’s promise. I try to apply a critical, questioning mode of reading that, while staying within the parameters of the narrative, allow us to identify and interpret connections, seams, and disjunctions. Indeed, this is along the lines of the way that historians read texts, and I often wish that Latter-day Saints treated figures from the Book of Mormon as if they were real individuals, with distinctive personalities and concerns, who struggle to articulate their ideas persuasively, and who develop over time. Instead, we too often claim the book as history and then read it as inspirational myth. I would also like Mormons to understand the important ways in which the Book of Mormon is not like the Bible (which may well increase our appreciation for both).

5.  Tell us why you think non-Mormons ought to be interested in this book. If you’re not interested in evangelizing them, what, beyond mere trivia, will the kind of close reading you put on display do for them? Why should they care?

This question comes up regularly and I’m always a bit puzzled by it. People who ask why anyone would care about a religious tradition that is not their own probably need to get out a little more. The Book of Mormon is one of the most significant books in American religious history and in recent world scripture. But this is not to jump up and down and insist that everyone should pay attention to us. The real question is, How interested are you in other religions and philosophies? Have you ever read the Qur’an? Why? Can you name half a dozen books from the Apocrypha? Are you interested in studies of the Daodejing or the Yoga Sutra? Have you ever wondered what the appeal was of Tibetan treasure texts? Are you excited about the other volumes in the Princeton’s “Lives of Great Religious Books” series? (I mean besides the forthcoming one on the Book of Mormon, written by the non-Mormon scholar Paul Gutjahr). If not, then you have no business asking people to care about your book, unless you are targeting them as potential converts. But those who are curious about the varieties of religious experience will at some point or other be interested in the Book of Mormon, and we have not made it easy for them. Simply put, the book is not easy to read or appreciate, particularly in the official, double-columned, verse-by-verse format.

In academics, there is a long tradition of monographs on significant texts that are easier to read than the texts themselves. For instance, I’m reading Spinoza’s Ethics right now, but only because I have already read a couple of studies that convinced me the book is worth my time and that explained its organization, main ideas, and significance. In the past, there has not been a detailed, academic introduction to the contents of the Book of Mormon. I’m afraid that our scripture will generally be a tough slog for those who do not already accept it as revelation, but people who make it all the way through Understanding will come away knowing the Book of Mormon better than many Latter-day Saints do. There will always be scholars of US history, or religious studies, or sacred texts, or American literature who would like to know about the Book of Mormon, or who at least feel an obligation to have some basic understanding of it. My book will give them access to what might otherwise be an opaque, bewildering text. By the same token, if there were some insider who could explain the Bahá’í scriptures to me, I would be most grateful; I’m always interested in the best, most persuasive readings that believers can come up with. (By the way, there has been some terrific work done lately on the Sikh’s Adi Granth, which is the most successful new scripture of the last few centuries, as measured by the number of adherents. The Book of Mormon comes in second.)

6.  Over the course of the week much was said about the modern subjectivity that your reading imparts to the three main editors (see particularly Rosalynde’s critique here). Can we really expect ancient subjects whose worlds are so very different than our own to have left such a coherent and familiar picture of who they were, their motives, goals, and stylistic elements? And doesn’t your answer to this question directly bear on the historicity debate?

Rosalynde’s review highlighted a new, significant critique of my narrator-based analysis, for which I’m grateful, but before I respond to her specific objection, let me make a few general comments. I was somewhat surprised (but then again, not really), by how much of the discussion in the essays and comments about my book at Times & Seasons were concerned with historicity.

This is the way that Latter-day Saints and their critics primarily approach the Book of Mormon, and it can be hard to imagine doing anything else. But I don’t think this is a burning issue for most academics—for them the book is obviously fiction, which doesn’t make it any less interesting. Try to imagine things from the other side.

For example, I think that the Mahabharata is a fascinating epic of great cultural, philosophical, and religious significance. I have read books about its textual history, its complex organization, and its themes. Yet there are some Hindus to whom it is of paramount importance whether the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas actually happened, or whether Krishna was or was not an actual historical figure. You can follow their arguments about dating the war based on astronomical references or about the significance of finding the submerged city of Dwarka in the 1980s, but such issues don’t matter much to me. While it can be intriguing to see how believers try to adapt their faith to the challenges of modernity, the reality of Hindu gods is not really a live option for me at this point, and the evidences put forward don’t even come close to what it would take to persuade me to take such claims seriously. (From the outside, a lot of Mormon apologetics looks something like this. I am deeply interested in the epic, but arguments about its historicity seem peripheral, parochial, or even a little silly. So I believe that it is possible to decouple close literary analysis from the question of ancient Nephites. Don’t get me wrong; taking historical contexts into consideration is one important way to read scripture (it does make a difference whether you view the Book of Mormon as a product of the ancient world or nineteenth century), but it’s not the only way to read, or even the most fruitful way. Perhaps Mormon scholars need to spend more time with their colleagues in religious studies departments.

The Book of Mormon presents a problem for religiously neutral readings though, because it was written by dictation, one time through, over the course of just three months. So any complex coherence can be taken as evidence of divine intervention rather than human composition. Latter-day Saints are very quick to jump to the conclusion that “Joseph Smith could not have written this.” But that wasn’t the point of my book, and I don’t think that arguments based on complexity are particularly compelling to outsiders. Could Joseph Smith have kept the lineage of Jaredite kings straight in both Ether 1 and then in reverse order in chapters 6-11? Perhaps, if he had worked things out beforehand and then used a mnemonic memory palace to be able to recall them forwards and backwards, but in any case, there are all kinds of astonishing human achievements in music, or math, or athletics that seem completely beyond the reach of ordinary mortals. That doesn’t prove that Mozart or Ramanujan or Michael Jordan had divine assistance. I was sincere when I talked about bracketing the issue of historicity, and I deliberately tried to leave respectful space for various ideas about origins of the Book of Mormon.

Rosalynde takes up the question of historicity, but from the opposite end. To her, my reconstruction of the narrators makes them seem too modern for an ancient work. I’m sympathetic with this. I have often wondered if the Book of Mormon just isn’t strange enough to be an ancient text.  Again, such subjective judgments are hardly conclusive, but the plainness of the book could be a point against its historicity. Rosalynde makes a much more specific argument, about the distinctively modern self-consciousness and self-presentation of the narrators. There are several possible responses. The first is to point to a few ancient authors who do appear to write from a coherent sense of self—people like Plato, Herodotus, Thucydides, and Sima Qian. Modern minds, and even autobiographical perspectives, did not absolutely begin with Augustine or Rousseau. (The point here is not simply first-person narration; it’s more a matter of having motivations, notions of autonomy, a sense of audience, and a feel for how one is positioned within a literary tradition— all of which must be intelligible to moderns; see Ben Huff’s essay.) Second, I could acknowledge James Olsen’s suggestion (comment #13) that perhaps I have read modern sensibilities into my interpretations of Book of Mormon narrators. It’s quite possible, though there is always a delicate balance in reading old texts (we are still talking about historicity, right?) between recognizing the real differences between how moderns and ancients mentally construct the world and their own identities—what aspects are mutable, what counts as evidence, what sorts of assumptions go unquestioned—and concerns that are universal across time and space, without which, there would be no chance of cross-cultural communication. It would be odd, in most cultures, that Nephi talks incessantly about his descendants but never about his own children, particularly the sons that presumably would succeed him as king. Or third, I could argue that perhaps Nephi and his prophetic successors were rather unique—that their implicit canon (the brass plates), their conversations with the Lord, and their sense of writing for readers many centuries in the future gave them a subjective sensibility that was quite distinct from other ancient authors.

In the end, I suspect that it is the Nephites’ religious assumptions that seem the most suspiciously modern, and perhaps the most satisfying answer for believers is to assume that this is a function of the translation, or of posthumous editing by narrators working on the other side of the veil, or that it is the result of extraordinary revelation. All of these are supernatural explanations that I would not expect outsiders to take seriously, but as for me, I actually believe in angels and translation by seer stones. Rosalynde’s question makes me want to read the Book of Mormon through again, looking for evidence of how the narrators think about the world and their place within it. It could be the subject of a whole book.

30 Responses to 12 Questions with Grant Hardy – part I

  1. chris on September 7, 2011 at 3:24 pm

    Hopefully I won’t offend any LDS writers here (?) but I think the reason your book has not been well received is that quite frankly there is a ton of devotional bloat on the LDS book market. Now, I’m not saying they are worthless, because I imagine the vast majority of the LDS books out there have some inspiring examples, and can be enlightening and testimony building in many ways. But my own opinion as a potential customer at least, is I see yet another LDS book, with interesting insights to read, when I can barely keep up with my own reading of the scriptures as well as keeping track of my personal insights. So I suspect this is at play for others as well. I’d also suggest that trying to please two types of customers with the same product is going to be difficult — no man can please two masters and all that. I think the marketing/PR, etc. can probably only focus on one segment of the market, and by trying to go after both segments (devotional/academic) at the same time with the same “product” you are perhaps alienating both. Not to say they both can’t find benefit if they actually picked it up…

    I will say the reviews here did reveal both books as something I’d be interested in for the Kindle (although I think I’ve only seen the most recent on Kindle, unless I’m mistaken?).

    You said a lot that was interesting, but I’m curious if you’d accept follow-ups, you said you deleted passages from your manuscript that might be misinterpreted. Can you give a few examples of those passages and the specific misinterpretation you were trying to avoid? Or was it all just simple Freudian slips where you revealed your historicity bias?

  2. Mark A. Clifford on September 7, 2011 at 3:31 pm

    I have given both the Readers Edition and Understanding the Book of Mormon to several friends and my Bishop (who is also my friend…) and I love it. These books are, without doubt, (with Given’s By the Hand of Mormon), among the great achievements in Mormon self-understanding. I found myself wishing that I could, kicking myself that I do not, preaching to my children that we ought to, and trying to read the Book of Mormon better. It improved our family scripture study. I like Laman and Lemuel more.
    The global scope, the effort to put it together coherently, the insights, all astonishing. Makes me wonder what we could do with the Book of Mormon if we would try.
    I am glad that the COC is reading Understanding the Book of Mormon at least. Now we Brighamites ought to, as well.

    Thank you Grant Hardy.
    You have given us something to live up to.

  3. Ben S on September 7, 2011 at 3:33 pm

    Chris, you think Oxford’s volume is competing with the latest Deseret Schlock? These things are not even in the same universe. It’s possible, I suppose, but I suspect that there’s not much overlap between the two audiences.
    I can’t recall the last DB volume I purchased, and you can see my booklist <a href="http://timesandseasons.org/index.php/2011/09/books-of-interest-to-the-lds-nerd/"here.

  4. chris on September 7, 2011 at 3:41 pm

    Ben – take the number of people who buy LDS books, and a large percentage of them buy DB-style stuff. I wouldn’t dare call any of those books trash (Schlock) because even though I’ve only perused a few of them at the in-laws house and in the book store, I’m quite certain they are the result of sincere personal revelation that people try to share in a variety of ways.

    But the point is, the typical book buyer doesn’t care if it was published by Oxford or DB. That’s why I think it didn’t move much in the market. In fact, I’d guess it would probably sell more if it was pushed by DB (maybe it is… I’m just speculating).

    Now, as for why the Maxwell Institute didn’t having anything to say, I have no idea. But I wouldn’t expect them to comment on everything…

    It’s quite often superior products fail abysmally in the marketplace because of poor marketing. This could be one of those cases — and I’m not even suggesting the author is concerned about market success or not.

    I was really just speaking as to why the “LDS market” didn’t fall head over heals for it.

  5. Struwelpeter on September 7, 2011 at 4:20 pm

    As someone who is known to wander through Deseret Book on occasion, I don’t think I’ve seen anything there that is even mildly comparable to Dr. Hardy’s book. I also note that Understanding is on sale there, at least on line. What other publications does Chris think are competing with Understanding amongst the DB crowd? I, for one, am only part-way through the book, which I would likely not have purchased but for the attention paid to it by the capable gang here at T&S. I will be promoting it to others.

  6. Kevin Barney on September 7, 2011 at 4:20 pm

    I just ordered one. FAIR has it for 15% off, or $25.46, with seven in stock:

    http://bookstore.fairlds.org/product.php?id_product=1033

    I haven’t gotten around to getting one yet nor for lack of interest but for the crush of reading already on my plate. But I love Grant, and I’m teaching GD and next year is the BoM curriculum year, so I decided I needed to pull the trigger and get it already.

    This T&S focus on the book helped, so thanks to all who participated.

  7. chris on September 7, 2011 at 4:45 pm

    Struwelpeter – I don’t think I’m doing a good job explaining myself, or you think that because two things are not the same consumers accurately perceive that.

    I’ll try another way… the vast majority of Mormons I know would be interested in reading something that digs deep and provides insights into the characters and stories in the Book of Mormon.

    This book to me, before I had seen dozens of reviews, etc. for it would have been passed by on the shelf just like every other LDS themed book because there has been a huge overload of LDS themed books in the last decade or so.

    It says nothing to the content of the book, nothing about the character of the other books, but that the market is pretty saturated with choices for people buying LDS books. That being the case, it’s extremely hard to get your “voice” heard in a crowded marketplace, where I think even many consumers are starting to tune out.

    If you agree that most (or at least a lot) of book buying LDS people would like to read more in depth to the characters/narration, etc. then it doesn’t matter that there is no direct competition for this book as far as character/narrator analysis goes. The competition is every other LDS themed (or religious) book even if you don’t think they are competing. That’s just the nature of economics.

  8. Whizzbang of Winnipeg on September 7, 2011 at 4:52 pm

    I too am surprised by the lack of response to it. My brother works in a library and I got him to order this book. Without telling how, I found out that only two people have taken the book out, both members, one is me and the other has since passed away. I couldn’t put it down, it is by far the best book I have ever read on the Book of Mormon. I have been waiting for a book like since the year 2000 and I was not disappointed in the slightest

  9. Paul Bohman on September 7, 2011 at 5:21 pm

    “I have often wondered if the Book of Mormon just isn’t strange enough to be an ancient text.”

    Me too, among many other concerns.

    But that aside, I’m grateful for the Reader’s Edition of the Book of Mormon, which I have had for years, and which I have found truly useful. I gave a copy to a non-Mormon friend as well. The Reader’s Edition seemed like a much friendlier version to give to someone else than the official version. And I’ve added “Understanding” to my shopping cart.

  10. Knob on September 7, 2011 at 7:39 pm

    I have a serious question on this book (or others of the same variety): how would you convince a regular member to buy it or read it? My wife, specifically, is anti any book that isnt an “approved” book (ie written by church leadership or published by the church). What is a good discussion for reading books that challenge our thinking, which come from outside the structure or the church hierarchy? How would you get the average member to want to read this book?

  11. Mike on September 7, 2011 at 9:37 pm

    Grant, Count me among the fans of both books. I have recommended both to multiple persons. I hoping the day will come when the Church publishes the Reader’s Edition with footnotes as its official BoM, and I’m hoping insight from Understanding make it into GD next year.

  12. Whizzbang of Winnipeg on September 7, 2011 at 9:54 pm

    Knob-Tell her that Hardy’s new book can be bought at Deseretbook

    http://deseretbook.com/auth/7368/Grant_Hardy

  13. Sonny on September 7, 2011 at 11:05 pm

    Just bought and downloaded it. Gotta love Kindle. Instant gratification. :-)

  14. n8c on September 7, 2011 at 11:11 pm

    #1 and #3. I just finished How We Got The Book of Mormon. As I shared some insights on the translation of the Book of Mormon with “well read” family members they instantly wanted to know: “Who published it?” (Meaning was it Deseret Book).

    So as I am reading Understanding the Book of Mormon, again I want to persuade my friends to buy/read this significant and insightful book…but I am shouting to friends that still haven’t listened to my pleadings to read Rough Stone Rolling or MMM. How do you convince the LDS reader to read uncorrelated/historic/analytic works?

    This book has been a wonderful suprise to read…I knew nothing of it two weeks ago.

  15. Kent Olmstead on September 7, 2011 at 11:24 pm

    I’ve enjoyed reading the several recent reviews of Dr. Hardy’s book on a variety of LDS blogs. If it wasn’t receiving the attention it deserves, that seems to be changing in recent weeks.

    I also have to admit to quite a bit of (amateur) scholarly envy. I completed a reformatting of the Book of Mormon text in the mid 90’s — taking text files from an early PC based scripture program, converting the files onto an early Mac Classic (the version with a drive that would read PC text files), and then methodically deleting all the verse numbers. With that prep work completed, I then worked through the text from beginning to end, making my own decisions on paragraph and chapter breaks, putting quotes around conversations, indenting quoted scripture, etc.

    All of this was motivated by my experience teaching early morning seminary. The youth just couldn’t read past the incessant interruptions of verse and chapter. Our conditioning to ask “what does this verse mean…” or to read a chapter a day makes discovering the full context a real challenge. My original cover page is lost, but I think I titled it “Book of Mormon: Reader’s Edition” after a bible with a similar title. It’s 205 single-sided landscape pages (in two columns — so each column is like a single page).

    I actually sent a copy of the finished manuscript to Elder Maxwell, along with my experiences with sharing a plain text version. But it was returned unread with a letter stating that General Authorities do not read unsolicited manuscripts, but indicating it’s value for personal and family study.

    A year or so later, as the internet became more available, I emailed some chapters to FARMS, where I was informed that one of their scholars was working on a similar project. I’ve always assumed, since the publications of “A Reader’s Edition” around 2003, that Dr. Hardy was the mentioned scholar.

    Regarding “Understanding”, I’m curious why Alma is not mentioned along with Nephi, Mormon, and Moroni as a major narrator. I’m convinced that Alma’s own narrative voice influenced Mormon in a major way. Hopefully I’ll have an opportunity to share that insight someday (this comment already being way too long.) Envy aside, I’m enjoying the feeling of kindred spirits with the Hardy’s shared enthusiasm for the Book of Mormon text.

  16. James Olsen on September 8, 2011 at 1:15 am

    Knob & n8c: In my experience, the most effective approach to helping others appreciate less “correlated” material is just discussion. It sounds like this sort of material is something you have a passion for – others with whom you’re close seeing and discussing with you why you feel that passion will probably help more than anything. Also, they’ll probably not object to you sharing all the insights you gain from your readings; knowing where the insights come from gets people curious. Knob, in your particular case, you might point out to her the scriptures and all the statements by modern prophets and apostles about reading good books, being educated, learning all we can, etc. Specifically with regard to UBM, you might discuss the famous condemnation of the saints for not taking the BofM seriously (D&C 84:54-57) repeated by Pres. Benson (http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=56a6ef960417b010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____) – it’s conspicuous that one of the stated intentions of this book is to help others read much more carefully and closely than we generally do.

    All that said, I think it’s important to understand what it is that’s keeping the people you know from reading it. The reality is, there are people for whom UBM probably wouldn’t do much. We certainly ought not demand that people be interested.

  17. Alison Moore Smith on September 8, 2011 at 2:29 am

    James and Grant, thank you for this interview. This looks like a book both my husband and I would enjoy. Kindle, here we come. :)

  18. Alison Moore Smith on September 8, 2011 at 2:31 am

    Added: I think the book hasn’t gotten more attention because of the title. It’s not a bad title, but my assumptions about the contents were completely wrong.

  19. Paul Bohman on September 8, 2011 at 3:57 am

    I have to agree that the title makes the book sound much more ordinary than it is. It’s not an inaccurate title, but it doesn’t draw attention to its strengths as a literary analysis. Of course, I realize this isn’t a very helpful comment, because the book already has the title that it has. But it might help explain some of the undeserved neglect.

  20. Stephen M (Ethesis) on September 8, 2011 at 7:15 am

    and Oxford is not a marginal press — excellent point. Though, as I read the book, I think it is one that takes time to penetrate. It is somewhat academic (said with irony), which imposes a wall of text hurdle (as it justifies itself in its niche) for many readers before they get to the book itself.

  21. Ben S. on September 8, 2011 at 8:51 am

    Knob- How about this, from the Ensign?

    “We need to develop the capacity to form judgments of our own about the value of ideas, opportunities, or people who may come into our lives. We won’t always have the security of knowing whether a certain idea is “Church approved,” because new ideas don’t always come along with little tags attached to them saying whether they have been reviewed at Church headquarters. Whether in the form of music, books, friends, or opportunities to serve, there is much that is lovely, of good report, and praiseworthy that is not the subject of detailed discussion in Church manuals or courses of instruction. Those who will not risk exposure to experiences that are not obviously related to some Church word or program will, I believe, live less abundant and meaningful lives than the Lord intends.” Ensign July 1979.

    The whole article is excellent.

  22. Kevin Christensen on September 8, 2011 at 9:44 am

    I bought it immediately after reading Blair’s online review. I found it fresh and insightful, resonating for me with the pleasures of reading Robert Alter and Alan Goff. I particularly enjoyed the distinctiveness in personalities between Mormon and Moroni, for instance, the different values and rhetorical strategies they employ.

    Seeing this come from Oxford University Press, on the heels of Given’s By the Hand of Mormon is also a bit of a rush.

  23. WMP on September 8, 2011 at 10:51 am

    I just finished the book and found it extraordinary. (Actually, I’m still digging through the endnotes.) Thank you, Professor Hardy, for pushing scholarship on this important topic (even though, as a non-academic but, I like to think, well educated and generally intelligent person, I did have to pull out the virtual dictionary from time to time).

  24. Nate R on September 8, 2011 at 12:28 pm

    re: getting our LDS friends to read the book.

    First, I had no idea this book existed until T&S began its reviews. I bought it immediately and totally love it. I’ve recommended it to several more people, who have since bought it and began reading it. So just getting the word out that THIS book (as opposed to the masses of books at Deseret Book) is well worth reading will help the book garner the attention and readership it deserves.

    Second, with respect to reading “uncorrelated materials”, I take a similar approach to teaching Sunday School. My view is that I can read commentaries and use anything from commentaries which bases its evidence on what is IN the scriptures. I just taught a class on Galatians, for example, and I used all kinds of information that scholars derived just from a careful reading of Galatians. My thought is, “If I had just read Galatians way more carefully, then I could have got this out of my ‘personal scripture study,’ and so would be fair game for Sunday School.” If the information is IN the book, and it just takes a careful reading to glean that information, then that information should be appropriate for people who take the study of the scriptures seriously. Understanding the Book of Mormon does exactly that: it takes information IN the BofM and, through a very careful reading, tells us all kinds of things that are IN the BofM. So LDS believers should not be reluctant to read this book. It just talks about what the BofM actually says, and it is done WAY better than any other commentary I have ever read. (By the way, I am excited to use this book as a source while teaching the BofM in SS in next year.)

    Third, as noted, this book is not for EVERYONE. This book is written by an academic and printed by an academic press with the hope, at least, that the academic community will take the book (and the BofM) seriously as an appropriate topic for scholarly research. So this book may not be meant for LDS believers who have no academic inclinations. With that said, I found the book very accessible (though I’m an academic, I highly value clear and easy to understanding writing, and Understanding the Book of Mormon meets that standard), so I think the book should be appropriate for any believer who takes his or her scripture study seriously. For example, anyone who can profitably slog through Talmage’s massive and dense (and excellent) Jesus the Christ should be able to easily get through Understanding the Book of Mormon, and they will be all the better for it.

  25. Grant Hardy on September 8, 2011 at 12:34 pm

    Knob (#10) – You might tell her that my book is available at the Church History Museum right across the street from Temple Square. That’s not quite the same as having “approval,” but the Museum is wholly operated by the Church and represents it in an official capacity. The bookstore there carries a very limited number of titles published by non-Mormon publishers, so I assume that someone in the hierarchy took a look at my book and decided that it was relatively safe, and that it would be a useful resource for the many visitors, both LDS and non-LDS, who come to the Museum.

    Kent (#15) – For formal reasons I decided to focus on the main narrators who actually wrote on the gold plates (though I left out Jacob because of limited space). Alma is not one of the final narrator/editors, though it appears that his record had a great influence on Mormon’s abridgment. I’m not sure how closely Mormon was following his sources, but after the original record keeper shifts from Alma to Helaman at Alma 45, the literary quality of Mormon’s account seems to decrease.

    Alison and Paul (#18, 19)- I don’t think that titles are my forte. The current title, Understanding the Book of Mormon: A Reader’s Guide, was strongly suggested by my editor at Oxford since my original working title was even more nondescript and boring. I was pleased that her suggestion echoed the title of my earlier book.

  26. David T on September 8, 2011 at 1:01 pm

    I recently bought this book on Kindle, and then convinced my father in law to pick it up as well. We’re both very much enjoying it. This is a fantastic compliment to Brant Gardner’s multi-volume “Second Witness” commentary on the Book of Mormon.

  27. chris on September 8, 2011 at 1:11 pm

    “I was pleased that her suggestion echoed the title of my earlier book.”

    I just wanted to say that in buying the book on kindle last night, I had to do several double takes to make sure I was getting the right book. I would have been content with either version actually, but I wasn’t sure if it was one of those times when naming conventions between various stores was creating an issue where the same product was mislabeled on the product webpage. Sometimes ecommerce sites show the wrong book cover, have a slightly different product page title, etc. so the two similar titles was actually a little confusing. I would certainly confuse both books for the same book, if I was just familiar with them in passing (which might cause me to overlook the newer one)

  28. danithew on September 8, 2011 at 7:31 pm

    I gave copies of “Understanding the Book of Mormon” to my parents and to one of my hometeaching families. I think along with Royal Skousen’s Textual Variants works, it is the best Book of Mormon commentary we have right now.

    Are there any plans to translate “Understanding the Book of Mormon” into Spanish? I attend a Spanish-speaking ward and think some of our members would really benefit from reading it.

  29. BHodges on September 13, 2011 at 2:12 pm

    A review by *Blair Hodges, not Holmes. Though I like the name association if it was an inadvertent observation of my mad investigation skillz.

  30. Grant Hardy on September 14, 2011 at 2:09 pm

    Blair (Hodges),
    My apologies. I hope that everyone immediately realized that I was referring to your review in “Life on Gold Plates,” but I inadvertently typed the name of one of my respected colleagues from back when I taught in BYU’s History Department.

    And apparently I wrote too soon; a review of my book just appeared in the most recent issue of BYU Studies.